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Just can't get enough of IT

This blog is about mostly anything in IT. But the primary focuses are Microsoft technologies like Exchange Server, Microsoft 365, Microsoft Teams, and Cloud Security.

Exchange Server 2019 LogoServices of third-party software solutions often interfere with installing a new Exchange Server cumulative update, because these services have a file lock active. 

To avoid any issues when installing a CU, or having the prerequisites check fail due to open files, you simply stop the Windows services and ensure that those services do not restart automatically. Especially monitoring solutions that use some kind of watchdog service are a candidate that you must disable for installing an Exchange Server CU.

The following two PowerShell examples help you to prepare the Windows services for installing an Exchange Server CU.

 

Prepare for CU installation

In preparation for the installation of an Exchange Server cumulative update, you can use the following PowerShell commands.

# Disable and stop services or just stop services
# Add other services as needed

# Set SMEX service to manual and stop services
Get-Service -Name 'ScanMail*' | Set-Service -StartupType Manual
Get-Service -Name 'ScanMail*' | ?{$_.Status -eq 'Running'} | Stop-Service -Force

# Stop SMEX SQL Express instance
Get-Service -Name 'MSSQL*' | ?{$_.Status -eq 'Running'} | Stop-Service -Force

# Disable and stop ENow monitoring services
Get-Service 'ENow*' | Set-Service -StartupType Disabled
Get-Service 'ENow*' | ?{$_.Status -eq 'Running'} | Stop-Service -Force

# Stop NetBackup service
Get-Service -Name 'NetBackup*' | ?{$_.Status -eq 'Running'} | Stop-Service -Force

 

Post CU installation

After installing the Exchange Server cumulative update you should restart your computer. I recommend initiating a check for additional Windows Updates for the CU. This helps to ensure that you do not only have the latest CU installed, but required security updates as well.

# Enabling and starting services
# Adjust the list of services as needed

# Enable and start SMEX services
Get-Service -Name 'ScanMail*' | Set-Service -StartupType Automatic
Get-Service -Name 'ScanMail*' | Start-Service

# Enable and start ENow Monitoring services
Get-Service -Name 'ENow*' | Set-Service -StartupType Automatic
Get-Service -Name 'ENow*' | Start-Service

 

Enjoy Exchange Server.

 

 

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PowerShellYou sometimes need some (or even many) test user objects in Active Directory.

This script helps you create any number of test users in your Active Directory domain, which you can easily enable for on-premises or remote mailboxes afterward.

 

The Script

# Number of user accounts to create
$UserCount = 5
$RandomPassword = $true
$DefaultPassword = 'Pa55w.rd'

# User name prefix
# New user object will be named TestUser1, TestUser2, ...
$TestUserPrefix = 'TestUser'

# User object properties
$GivenName = 'Test'
$Surname = 'User'
$Company = 'Varunagroup'
$JobTitle = @('Junior Consultant','Senior Consultant','Technical Consultant','Business Consultant')
$PreferredLanguage = 'de-DE'

# Name of the new organizational unit for test user object
$TestOU = 'Test User'

# Target OU path where the script creates the new OU 
$TargetOU = 'OU=IT,dc=varunagroup,dc=de'

# Import Active Directory PowerShell Module
Import-Module -Name ActiveDirectory 

# Build OU Path
$UserOUPath = ("OU={0},{1}" -f $TestOU, $TargetOU)

# Check if OU exists
$OUExists = $false

try {
   $OUExists = [adsi]::Exists("LDAP://$UserOUPath")
}
catch {
   $OUExists =$true   
}

if(-not $OUExists) { 
   # Create new organizational unit for test users
   New-ADOrganizationalUnit -Name $TestOU -Path $TargetOU -ProtectedFromAccidentalDeletion:$false -Confirm:$false
}
else {
   Write-Warning ('OU {0} exists please delete the OU and user objects manually, before running this script.' -f $UserOUPath)
   Exit
}

Write-Output ("Creating {0} user object in {1}" -f $UserCount, $UserOUPath)

# Create new user objects
1..$UserCount | ForEach-Object {

   # Get a random number for selecting a job title
   $random = Get-Random -Minimum 0 -Maximum (($JobTitle | Measure-Object). Count - 1)

   # Set user password
   if($RandomPassword) {
      # Create a random password
      $UserPassword = ConvertTo-SecureString -String (-join ((33..93) + (97..125) | Get-Random -Count 25 | % {[char]$_})) -AsPlainText -Force
   }
   else {
      # Use a fixed password
      $UserPassword = ConvertTo-SecureString -String $DefaultPassword -AsPlainText -Force
   }

   # Create a new user object
   # Adjust user name template and other attributes as needed
   New-ADUser -Name ("{0}{1}" -f $TestUserPrefix, $_) `
   -DisplayName ("{0} {1}" -f $TestUserPrefix, $_) `
   -GivenName $GivenName `
   -Surname ("$Surname{0}" -f $_) `
   -OtherAttributes @{title=$JobTitle[$random];company=$Company;preferredLanguage=$PreferredLanguage} `
   -Path $UserOUPath `
   -AccountPassword $UserPassword `
   -Enabled:$True `
   -Confirm:$false
}

 

Enable mailboxes

Use your on-premises Exchange Management Shell to enable all test users with an on-premises mailbox.

$UserOU = 'OU=Test User,OU=IT,dc=varunagroup,dc=de'
Get-User -OrganizationalUnit $UserOU | Enable-Mailbox -Confirm:$false

 

Use your on-premises Exchange Management Shell to enable all test users with a new remote mailbox in Exchange Online. Do not forget to change the tenant name of the remote routing address.

Get-User -OrganizationalUnit 'OU=Test User,OU=IT,dc=varunagroup,dc=de' | %{Enable-RemoteMailbox
 -Identity $_ -Confirm:$false -RemoteRoutingAddress "$($_.SamAccountName)@TENANT.mail.onmicrosoft.com"}

 

You find the most recent version of the script at GitHub.

 

Links

 

Enjoy.

 

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Last updated: 2020-09-17

 

Exchange Server 2010Exchange Server 2013Exchange Server 2016Exchange Server 2019Problem

The use of Exchange Edge Transport Servers requires the synchronization of user and configuration data from internal Exchange Servers to the Edge Transport Servers. The synchronization utilizes secure LDAP (EdgeSync) to transmit the data securely and is based on an Edge Subscription.

When you create a new Edge Subscription on your internal Exchange Servers by importing the Edge Subscription XML-file, establishing the EdgeSync-connection might fail.

You will find the following error in the application event log of the internal Exchange Server:

Log Name:      Application
Source:        MSExchange EdgeSync
Event ID:      1035
Task Category: Synchronization
Level:         Error
Keywords:      Classic
Description:
EdgeSync failed to synchronize because it only supports Cryptographic API certificates. 
The local Hub Transport server's default certificate with thumbprint XYZ isn't a 
CAPI certificate. To set a CAPI certificate as the default certificate, use the 
Enable-ExchangeCertificate cmdlet with the Services parameter using the value of SMTP.
When you encounter this error I recommend removing the Edge Subscription from the internal and the Edge Transport Server. Fixing this issue will take some time and the Edge Subscription might become invalid.

 

Reason

The private key of the current Exchange Transport default certificate of the internal Exchange servers uses a CNG private key. EdgeSync requires a CAPI1 based private key.

  • CNG = Cryptography Next Generation
  • CAPI1 = Cryptographic API (already deprecated)

This problem occurs primarily when using an Enterprise Certificate Authority using certificate templates with individual template settings. 

So far, I have not seen this issue when using public certificates issued by trusted 3rd-party Certificate Authorities.

 

How do you determine, if the type of the default transport certificate is a CNG or CAPI1 certificate?

  • Log on to the internal Exchange Server where you imported the Edge Subscription file and start a new Exchange Management Shell session
  • Query the Transport Service to identify the default certificate thumbprint
Get-TransportService | ft Name,InternalTransportCertificateThumbprint
  • Open an administrative command prompt
  • Export the certificates information from the certificate store to a text file
certutil -v -store my > cert.txt
  • Open the text file using an editor tool of your choice
  • Search for the certificate thumbprint identified in step 2
    This thumbprint is the SHA1 certificate hash
  • Scroll down to the provider section to find the following two attributes
    • ProviderType
    • KeySpec

If both attribute are of the value 0, the certificate if a CNG certificate.

The section might look like this:

Unique container name: XYZ
    Provider = Microsoft Software Key Storage Provider
    ProviderType = 0
  Flags = 20 (32)
    CRYPT_MACHINE_KEYSET -- 20 (32)
    KeySpec = 0 -- XCN_AT_NONE

 

Solution

Use OpenSSL to convert the CNG certificate to a CAPI1 certificate.

Using OpenSSL requires the download of the Windows release of OpenSSL. I recommend to not install the software on the Exchange Server but a separate Windows server or your administrative desktop system. Additionally, you need the certificate with its private key as a PFX-file.

Use the following steps to convert the CNG certificate to a CAPI1 certificate.

  • Download and install OpenSSL
  • Open the OpenSSL Command Prompt
  • Navigate to the folder containing the PFX-file
  • Convert the PFX-file to a PEM-file
    The tool will query to enter the PFX password
openssl pkcs12 -in CERT.pfx -out cert.pem -nodes
  • Convert the PEM-file to a new PFX-file
    The tool will query you to set a PFX password
openssl pkcs12 -export -in cert.pem -out NEWCERT.pfx

The new PFX-file is now a CAPI1 certificate. The new certificate has the same thumbprint. Now you must replace the current certificate used by Exchange Server with the new certificate. 

Replacing the certificate requires a downtime of each Exchange Server requiring the certificate replacement. This is due to the requirement to remove the CNG certificate first, following the import of the CAPI1 certificate. Afterward, you need to enable the required Exchange services.

  • Log on to the internal Exchange Server where you imported the Edge Subscription file and start a new Exchange Management Shell session
  • Query local Exchange Server certificates and identify the thumbprint of the default Exchange Server self-signed certificate 
    The certificate common name (CN) equals the server name
Get-ExchangeCertificate -Server SERVERNAME
  • Change the Exchange Transport default certificate to the self-signed certificate before deleting the CNG certificate
# It is mandatory to answer the query for replacing the default certificate with YES
Enable-ExchangeCertificate -Thumbprint THUMBPRINT -Services SMTP

# Restart the transport service
Restart-Service MSExchangeTransport
  • Remove the CNG certificate
    • Use either the certificate store MMC, Exchange Management Shell, or Exchange Admin Center
  • Import the CAPI1 certificate
    • Use either the certificate store MMC, Exchange Management Shell, or Exchange Admin Center
  • Enable the imported certificate and replace the default transport certificate
# It is mandatory to answer the query for replacing the default certificate with YES
Enable-ExchangeCertificate -Thumbprint NEWCERTTHUMBPRINT -Services SMTP

# Restart the transport service
Restart-Service MSExchangeTransport
  • Repeat the certificate replace for each Exchange Server in the same Active Directory site

 

Now, that you updated the local Exchange Servers there is one more step that needs to be checked on the Edge Transport Servers.

Edge Transport Servers are not domain-joined and therefore do not receive any GPO-based configuration. Each required configuration must be performed locally. To ensure that the default transport certificate of the internal Exchange servers can be used for cryptographic operations we must ensure that the certificate chain of that certificate is present in the certificate store of Edge Transport servers.

Take a look at the certificate chain of the converted CAPI1 certificate and import the Root-CA and Subordinate-CA certificates into the Edge Transport servers local certificate store. You must ensure that the certificates are placed into appropriate stores:

  • Root-CA certificate goes into Trusted Root Certification Authorities \ Certificates
  • Subordinate-CA certificate goes into Intermediate Certification Authorities \ Certificates

 

Next, you create a new Edge Subscription on your Edge Transport server and create a new subscription for the Active Directory site on the internal Exchange Server. The internal Exchange Servers are now able to establish an EdgeSync connection and encrypting the data transferred to the Edge Transport servers.

 

Note

When you receive the TLS certificate as PFX/PKCS12 file, you import the certificate and the private key. The import process itself defines the priavte key Crypto Provider. Using the following command line you ensure that the import process suses the legacy crypto provider.

certutil -csp "Microsoft RSA SChannel Cryptographic Provider" -importpfx my MYCERTpfx

 

Links

 

Enjoy Exchange Server and Edge Transport!

 

 

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Last updated: 2021-02-02


Logo Exchange ServerThis is a post summarizing the configuration values for important Exchange-related Active Directory object attributes.

Whenever you need to look up these values for troubleshooting, or editing the values manually.

Note: You should not edit any of the values manually, just because you can. Edit any Exchange-related attributes, if you are familiar with the result of your changes.

 

RemoteRecipientType

Attribute

  • msExchRemoteRecipientType 

 

1
ProvisionMailbox
2
ProvisionArchive (On-Premises Mailbox)
3
ProvisionMailbox, ProvisionArchive
4
Migrated (UserMailbox)
6
ProvisionArchive, Migrated
8
DeprovisionMailbox
10
ProvisionArchive, DeprovisionMailbox
16
DeprovisionArchive (On-Premises Mailbox)
17
ProvisionMailbox, DeprovisionArchive
20
Migrated, DeprovisionArchive
24
DeprovisionMailbox, DeprovisionArchive
33
ProvisionMailbox, RoomMailbox
35
ProvisionMailbox, ProvisionArchive, RoomMailbox
36
Migrated, RoomMailbox
38
ProvisionArchive, Migrated, RoomMailbox
49
ProvisionMailbox, DeprovisionArchive, RoomMailbox
52
Migrated, DeprovisionArchive, RoomMailbox
65
ProvisionMailbox, EquipmentMailbox
67
ProvisionMailbox, ProvisionArchive, EquipmentMailbox
68
Migrated, EquipmentMailbox
70
ProvisionArchive, Migrated, EquipmentMailbox
81
ProvisionMailbox, DeprovisionArchive, EquipmentMailbox
84
Migrated, DeprovisionArchive, EquipmentMailbox
100
Migrated, SharedMailbox
102
ProvisionArchive, Migrated, SharedMailbox
116
Migrated, DeprovisionArchive, SharedMailbox

 

Recipient Type 

Attribute

  • msExchRecipientDisplayType

 

Display Type
msExchRecipientDisplayType
(Decimal Value)
RecipientType
Mailbox User
0
MailboxUser
Distribution Group
1
DistrbutionGroup
Public Folder
2
PublicFolder
Dynamic Distribution Group
3
DynamicDistributionGroup
Organization
4
Organization
Private Distribution List
5
PrivateDistributionList
Remote Mail User
6
RemoteMailUser
Conference Room Mailbox
7
ConferenceRoomMailbox
Equipment Mailbox
8
EquipmentMailbox
ACL able Mailbox User
1073741824
ACLableMailboxUser
Security Distribution Group
1043741833
SecurityDistributionGroup
Synced Mailbox User
-2147483642
SyncedMailboxUser
Synced UDG as UDG
-2147483391
SyncedUDGasUDG
Synced UDG as Contact
-2147483386
SyncedUDGasContact
Synced Public Folder
-2147483130
SyncedPublicFolder
Synced Dynamic Distribution Group
-2147482874
SyncedDynamicDistributionGroup
Synced Remote Mail User
-2147482106
SyncedRemoteMailUser
Synced Conference Room Mailbox
-2147481850
SyncedConferenceRoomMailbox
Synced Equipment Mailbox
-2147481594
SyncedEquipmentMailbox
Synced USG as UDG
-2147481343
SyncedUSGasUDG
Synced USG as Contact
-2147481338
SyncedUSGasContact
ACL able Synced Mailbox User
-1073741818
ACLableSyncedMailboxUser
ACL able Synced Remote Mail User
-1073740282
ACLableSyncedRemoteMailUser
ACL able Synced USG as Contact
-1073739514
ACLableSyncedUSGasContact
Synced USG as USG
-1073739511
SyncedUSGasUSG

 

 

  • Exchange Server: msExchRecipientTypeDetails
  • Exchange Online: RecipientTypeDetails

 

Object Type
msExchRecipientTypeDetails
(Decimal Value)
RecipientTypeDetails
User Mailbox
1
UserMailbox
Linked Mailbox
2
LinkedMailbox
Shared Mailbox
4
SharedMailbox
Legacy Mailbox
8
LegacyMailbox
Room Mailbox
16
RoomMailbox
Equipment Mailbox
32
EquipmentMailbox
Mail Contact
64
MailContact
Mail User
128
MailUser
Mail-Enabled Universal Distribution Group
256
MailUniversalDistributionGroup
Mail-Enabled Non-Universal Distribution Group
512
MailNonUniversalGroup
Mail-Enabled Universal Security Group
1024
MailUniversalSecurityGroup
Dynamic Distribution Group
2048
DynamicDistributionGroup
Public Folder
4096
Public Folder
System Attendant Mailbox
8192
SystemAttendantMailbox
System Mailbox
16384
SystemMailbox
Cross-Forest Mail Contact
32768
MailForestContact
User
65536
User
Contact
131072
Contact
Universal Distribution Group
262144
UniversalDistributionGroup
Universal Security Group
524288
UniversalSecurityGroup
Non-Universal Group
1048576
NonUniversalGroup
Disabled User
2097152
DisabledUser
Microsoft Exchange
4194304
MicrosoftExchange
Arbitration Mailbox
8388608
ArbitrationMailbox
Mailbox Plan
16777216
MailboxPlan
Linked User
33554432
LinkedUser
Room List
268435456
RoomList
Discovery Mailbox
536870912
DiscoveryMailbox
Role Group
1073741824
RoleGroup
Remote Mailbox
2147483648
RemoteMailbox
Team Mailbox
137438953472
TeamMailbox
Remote Team Mailbox
274877906944
RemoteTeamMailbox
Monitoring Mailbox
549755813888
Monitoring Mailbox
Group Mailbox
1099511627776
GroupMailbox
Linked Room Mailbox
2199023255552
LinkedRoomMailbox
AuditLogMailbox
4398046511104
AuditLogMailbox
Remote Group Mailbox
8796093022208
RemoteGroupMailbox
Scheduling Mailbox
17592186044416
SchedulingMailbox
Guest MailBox
35184372088832
GuestMailBox
Aux AuditLog Mailbox
70368744177664
AuxAuditLogMailbox
Supervisory Review
140737488355328
SupervisoryReview

 

 

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Logo - Microsoft 365 Virtual ConferenceThe Microsoft 365 Virtual Marathon is happening on May 27-28 2020.

This is a free online event, providing you with 36 hours of non-stop sessions from speakers around the globe. You can join every time. 

  • 300+ Speakers
  • 400+ Sessions
  • Keynotes by Jeff Teper, Naomi Moneypenny, Bill Baer, Jon Levesque, Laurie Pottmeyer, and Michael Holste
  • Sessions are primarily in Englisch, but there are session in six additional languages
    • French, German, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, and Spanish 
  • Hashtag: #M365VM

The virtual conference is a joint effort with SPC.

 

I speak at Microsoft 365 Virtual Marathon about:

  • Exchange Hybrid - What, Why, and How
  • Wednesday, May 27th
  • 23:00h (CEST)

 

The marathon session plan is available here.

Register now.

 

Link

 

Enjoy!

 

 

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